Effects and Risk Assessment
The general objective of WP4 is to generate new knowledge related to biological effects and responses after exposure to radon and NORM that have implications for risk assessment and radiation protection of humans and the environment and, to reduce the existing uncertainties in risk assessment. To achieve this goal, we address major knowledge gaps in human health risk assessment of radon and NORM, such as
- interaction between radon and smoking for lung cancer,
- risks of radon outside of the lung,
- risks associated with radon exposure during childhood,
- risks from radon and NORM in drinking water,
- mechanisms of radiation action in the disease processes, and
- quantification of various sources of uncertainties in risk inference. Furthermore, we address the major knowledge gaps for the risk assessment of non-human biota related to the
- combined effects of NORM and other stressors, and
- determining adverse outcome pathways leading to such effects.
The methods used in WP4 include: epidemiological studies and simulations based on epidemiological datasets, risk modelling, molecular epidemiology, experimental studies on combined effects carried out in realistic co-exposure conditions (radon and tobacco smoke/nanoparticles for human cell systems; NORM and chemicals and particulates for biota), and determining of adverse outcome pathways linking the mechanisms and effects after co-exposures.